Selasa, 06 Mei 2014

PELAYANAN RESMI PASANG INTERNET SPEEDY DEPOK-BOGOR


Informasi bagi yang minat pasang telepon rumah/speedy area Depok - Bogor :

1. Paket Telepon Non Bundling:
• Biaya Pasang Baru telepon : Rp. 325.000,-
• Biaya IKR/G : Rp. 104.500,-
• Pesawat telepon disediakan sendiri oleh pelanggan.

2. Paket Telepon Bundling Speedy kecepatan 512 Kbps:
• Pelanggan hanya membayar biaya IKR sebesar Rp. 104.500,-
• Gratis pemasangan telepon bundling Speedy.
• Gratis modem wireless.
• Biaya abodemen telepon normal (berbayar).
• Biaya perbulan Rp. 150.000,- (pembayaran mulai di bulan ke-2).

3. Paket Telepon Bundling Indie Home :
• Pelanggan hanya membayar biaya IKR sebesar Rp. 104.500,-
• Gratis pemasangan telepon + Speedy 512 Kbps + Tv kabel UseeTV 25 Channel.
• Gratis biaya abodemen telepon.
• Gratis telpon ke Telepon Rumah Lokal dan SLJJ mulai pukul 20.00-06.00
• Gratis modem wireless+Home Gateway TV kabel UseeTv.
• Biaya perbulan Rp. 160.000,- (pembayaran mulai di bulan ke-2)
Adapun persyaratan yang harus dilengkapi saat transaksi adalah:
• Fotocopy KTP/ Identitas lain yang masih berlaku sebanyak 2 (dua) lembar.
• Materai Rp.6000,- sebanyak 2 (dua) lembar.
Informasi pemasangan hubungi

Farid : 081 765 765 26 / 0896 0119 0421


Minggu, 23 Juni 2013

Tugas Softskill Artikel



SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT DAILY

Did not have to be à la Greenpeace environmental activists launch fast toward the whaling ships, demonstrated in front of the WTO meetings each year, or stand strong blockading heavy tractors and other machinery owned timber company in the midst of Borneo jungle, in order to save the environment .I used to think like that, and was sad because it did not have the courage to become activists.But I was wrong, many roads lead to Rome, as well as many ways to protect the environment. So how to live environmentally friendly? Fox shopping patterns Buy products with packaging that is more environmentally friendly.Quite often we see in the market, the product has a very sophisticated packaging, slick, but unfortunately less environmentally friendly.Just look biscuit products, sometimes layered wrappings.Outer layer, cardboard, plastic coating then given mixed aluminum, then still another per-individually wrapped in plastic.
Imagine how much waste is generated just by eating one biscuit! Choose recycled products when available.If possible, choose a paper, envelopes, and recycled books.Prioritizing recycled compost household waste than any other chemical fertilizers.Choose appliances and electronic products that are energy efficient.A trivial example, by choosing energy-efficient lightbulbs. I think it has been widely circulated in the Indonesian market.Indeed, the price is much more expensive, but far more energy efficient and longer lasting.

Electrical energy sucked a lot less, so utility bills are cheaper, and if more and more users choose electrical energy-efficient electronic products, electrical energy is needed and used was so much reduced and perhaps ........ perhaps yes, no more schedule lights off due to lack of electrical power that can be supplied by PLN to every home.Washing machines, computers, refrigerators, etc., are now also many who have energy-efficient type.Buy this kind of machine can be a smart way of investing and environmentally friendly.Shopping near home. By choosing to shop at places that are closer, we do not need to use the car and means to preventpollution vehicles. Fox consumption patternsConsumption of bio products and eating less red meat.Bio products means products produced with no use of pesticides and other chemicals, or now more popularly known as organic food.Perhaps many do not know, but otherwise is considered as one of the causes of cancer, pesticides are one of the causes of groundwater pollution.
So what to do with cows?Turns cattle and various other farm animals, according to the report of the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), is one of the main causes of environmental problems such as global warming, land degradation, water and soil pollution, loss of biodiversity and biomass.FAO explained that greenhouse gas pollution is generated by livestock amounted to 18% of total greenhouse gas pollution.
In hindsight, it is more appropriate warning to the people of Europe and North America that has a carnivorous culture.Indonesian food menu is not overly dominated by red meat (cattle, horses, goats, etc.) I feel I have enough green in this case.But, it never hurts to know better anyway. So, choose a hodgepodge than 250 gr steak in Steak House .......... Save at home Many ways to save electricity: Turn off the lights when out of the room, turn off the TV or radio when no one is watching or listening, and turn off the computer or TV in total and not let it "stand-by" overnight.
Turning off the TV via a remote control device usually will not turn off the TV in total. Some electronic devices are also still sucking electricity for its energy supply cord is not unplugged from the wall outlet.

The water also needs to be saved. Of which do not let the tap water is not always inject water if necessary, to make use of rain water for watering the plants in the yard.  Save in the office
Use the printer only when absolutely necessary. Just because there is a free play printer prints a variety of articles or unnecessary emails. Save paper. Print to use both sides of paper and re-use paper whenever possible. Blank side of the paper can be used to print draft or a letter to write. Not bad, can save paper and foster self-conscious employees at the office. Use lights only when absolutely necessary. Sometimes we have a habit of automatically, immediately turn on the lights in the office room. Yet sometimes we still can work well using natural lighting. Love the stairs. For those who are based in buildings, if possible, better to use the stairs rather than the elevator. Five levels of it can still be reached by climbing stairs, different case if it had crept up to the 10th floor (if that is guaranteed to instantly gempor ........).
           
 Save on travel His advice is quite classic: Efficient use of private cars, prioritizing the use of public transport. Avoid the use of 4 × 4 cars are wasteful of energy, and use alternative means of transportation such as bicycles, or on foot.Avoid using the air conditioner in the car (yes I know, a policy that is quite impossible for those who live in Jakarta), and if possible to share a car with a friend or neighbor. Car sharing, point by using the car together, from home to the office, for example, petrol and servicing costs could be borne by a crowd and vehicle pollution also be reduced.





TERJEMAHAN

SELAMATKAN LINGKUNGAN SETIAP HARI
Ternyata tidak harus jadi aktivis lingkungan à la Greenpeace yang berperahu kencang menuju kapal pemburu ikan paus, berdemonstrasi di depan gedung pertemuan WTO setiap tahun, atau berdiri tegar memblokade traktor dan mesin berat lainnya milik perusahaan kayu di tengah-tengah hutan Kalimantan, untuk bisa menyelamatkan lingkungan. Dulu saya berpikir seperti itu, dan sempat miris karena tidak punya keberanian untuk menjadi aktivis. Tapi ternyata saya salah, banyak jalan menuju Roma, seperti juga banyak cara untuk melindungi lingkungan. Jadi bagaimana caranya untuk hidup yang ramah lingkungan?

Rubah pola belanja
Membeli produk dengan kemasan yang lebih ramah lingkungan.
Tak jarang kita lihat di pasaran, produk yang memiliki kemasan yang sangat canggih, apik, tapi sayangnya kurang ramah lingkungan.Coba lihat produk biskuit, kadang bungkusnya berlapis-lapis. Lapisan luar, karton, kemudian diberi lapisan plastik dicampur alumunium, kemudian masih lagi dibungkus per-individual dengan plastik. Bayangkan berapa jumlah sampah yang dihasilkan hanya dengan mengkonsumsi satu biskuit!
Pilihlah produk daur ulang ketika tersedia.

            Kalau memungkinkan, pilihlah kertas, amplop, dan buku hasil daur ulang.
Utamakan kompos hasil daur ulang sampah rumah tangga daripada pupuk kimiawi lainnya.
Pilihlah peralatan dan produk elektronik yang hemat energi.

            Contoh gampangnya saja, dengan memilih bohlam lampu yang hemat energi. Saya rasa sudah banyak beredar di pasaran Indonesia.Memang harganya jauh lebih mahal, tapi jauh lebih hemat energi dan lebih tahan lama.Energi listrik yang disedot jauh lebih sedikit, rekening listrik jadi lebih murah, dan kalau semakin banyak pengguna listrik memilih produk elektronik yang hemat energi, energi listrik yang dibutuhkan dan digunakan pun jadi lebih berkurang dan mungkin…..…mungkin ya, tidak ada lagi jadwal mati lampu akibat minimnya tenaga listrik yang bisa disalurkan oleh PLN ke setiap rumah. Mesin cuci, komputer, lemari pendingin, dsb, sekarang juga sudah banyak yang memiliki tipe hemat energi. Membeli mesin macam ini bisa menjadi cara investasi yang pintar dan ramah lingkungan.
Belanja di dekat rumah.

            Dengan memilih untuk berbelanja di tempat yang lebih dekat, kita tidak perlu menggunakan mobil dan artinya mencegah polusi kendaraan.
Rubah pola konsumsi
Konsumsi produk bio dan kurangi mengkonsumsi daging merah. Produk bio maksudnya produk yang dihasilkan dengan tidak menggunakan bahan pestisida dan bahan kimiawi lainnya, atau sekarang lebih populer dengan sebutan makanan organik.Mungkin banyak yang tidak tahu, tapi selain dianggap sebagai salah satu penyebab penyakit kanker, pestisida juga adalah salah satu penyebab polusi air tanah.
Terus apa hubungannya dengan sapi?

            Ternyata peternakan sapi dan berbagai hewan ternak lainnya, menurut laporan Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), adalah salah satu penyebab utama berbagai masalah lingkungan seperti: pemanasan global, degradasi tanah, polusi air dan tanah, dan hilangnya keanekaragaman biomass.FAO menerangkan kalau polusi gas rumah kaca yang dihasilkan oleh hewan ternak berjumlah 18% dari total polusi gas rumah kaca.
Kalau dipikir-pikir, peringatan ini lebih pantas untuk masyarakat Eropa dan Amerika Utara yang memiliki budaya karnivora.
            Menu makanan Indonesia yang tidak terlalu didominasi dengan daging merah (sapi, kuda, kambing, dsb) saya rasa sudah cukup ramah lingkungan dalam hal ini.Tapi, tidak ada salahnya toh untuk lebih tahu.Jadi, lebih baik pilih gado-gado daripada steak 250 gr di Steak House……….
Hemat di rumah
Banyak cara untuk menghemat listrik:

            Mematikan lampu ketika keluar ruangan, mematikan TV atau radio ketika tidak ada yang menonton atau menyimak, dan mematikan komputer atau TV secara total dan tidak membiarkannya “stand-by” semalaman.Mematikan TV lewat alat pengontrol jarak jauh biasanya tidak akan mematikan TV secara total.Beberapa peralatan elektronik juga tetap menyedot listrik selama kabel sumber energinya tidak dicabut dari colokan di dinding.
Air juga perlu dihemat.

            Dari yang tidak membiarkan keran air selalu mengucurkan air bila tidak perlu, sampai memanfaatkan air hujan untuk menyiram tanaman di pekarangan.
Hemat di kantor
Gunakan printer hanya kalau benar-benar perlu.Jangan mentang-mentang ada printer gratis main cetak berbagai artikel atau email yang tidak perlu.
Hemat kertas
Cetak dengan menggunakan kedua sisi kertas, dan gunakan kertas kembali bila memungkinkan. Sisi kosong kertas bisa digunakan untuk mencetak draft surat atau untuk menulis.  Lumayan, bisa menghemat kertas dan menumbuhkan sadar lingkungan di diri para pegawai kantor.
Gunakan lampu hanya kalau benar-benar perlu.

            Terkadang kita punya kebiasaan otomatis, masuk kantor langsung menghidupkan lampu ruangan.Padahal terkadang kita tetap bisa bekerja dengan baik menggunakan penerangan alami.
Cintailah tangga
Bagi mereka yang berkantor di gedung bertingkat, kalau memungkinkan lebih baik gunakan tangga daripada lift.Lima tingkat masih bisa kan dicapai dengan naik tangga, beda kasusnya kalau harus merayap sampai lantai 10 ( kalau yang ini dijamin bisa langsung gempor
Hemat di perjalanan
Sarannya cukup klasik:

            Hemat penggunaan mobil pribadi, utamakan penggunakan transportasi publik.Hindari pemakaian mobil 4×4 yang boros energi, dan gunakan alat transportasi alternatif seperti sepeda, atau jalan kaki.Hindari penggunaan alat pendingin di dalam mobil (iya saya tahu, kebijakan yang cukup mustahil bagi mereka yang tinggal di Jakarta), dan kalau memungkinkan berbagi mobil dengan teman atau tetangga.Berbagi mobil, maksudnya dengan menggunakan mobil bersama-sama, dari rumah ke kantor misalnya, ongkos bensin dan servis bisa ditanggung ramai-ramai dan polusi kendaraan pun jadi berkurang.

Komentar Tentang  Artikel Lingkungan Hidup
Menurut komentar saya berdasarkan artikel diatas adalah bahwa kita sebagai makhluk bumi harus bisa menjaga dan melestarikan lingkungan. Karena lingkungan merupakan tempat dimana kita hidup dan melakukan segala aktivitas.Baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung.
Lingkungan yang bersih dapat memotivasi kita untuk melakukan segala sesuatu yang positif, Karena lingkungan yang bersih dapat memberikan aura dan jiwa yang bersih. Salah satunya adalah dengan tidak membuang sampah sembarangan, karena sampah adalah salah satu parasit yang dapat merusak lingkungan.
Dalam kehidupan lingkungan sangatlah berguna, tanpa lingkungan manusia tidak mungkin dapat hidup. Tapi kita juga tidak sepenuhnya dapat bergantung pada lingkungan untuk dapat bertahan hidup dan memnuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari. Karena manusia dapat melakukan banyak hal sehingga bisa menghasilkan sesuatu produk dan jasa yang dapat memnuhi kebutuhan diri sendiri dan orang lain.
Salah satu contoh yaitu menghasilkan plastik yang berguna untuk membawa benda-benda yang dapat di bawa dengan barang tersebut. Bahan baku plastik sangat berbahaya untuk kelangsungan hidup lingkungan, terutama pada tumbuhan yang sangat membutuhkan lingkungan yang bersih.
Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut maka sebagai makhluk sosial manusia harus bisa mengatasi masalah tersebut, agar lingkungannya tidak rusak. Salah satu contohnya adalah dengan melakukan daur ulang plastik sehingga plastik yang sudah tidak terpakai dapat di gunakan lagi untuk kebutuhan yang lebih berguna.
  

Comments About the Environment Article

According to my comments based on the article above is that we as creatures of the earth should be able to maintain and preserve the environment. Because the environment is where we live and do all aktivitas.Baik directly or indirectly.
A clean environment can motivate us to do everything positive, because a clean environment can provide a clean aura and soul. One is by not littering, because waste is one parasite that can harm the environment.
Environment is very useful in life, without the human environment are not likely to live. But we also can not fully depend on the environment in order to survive and meet their daily needs. Because humans can do many things that could produce something of products and services that can fulfill the needs of self and others.
One example is useful for producing plastic carrying objects that can be taken with the item. Plastic raw material is very dangerous for the survival of the environment, especially in plants that desperately need a clean environment.
To resolve the matter, as social human beings should be able to resolve the issue, so that the environment is not damaged. One example is by doing so that the plastic recycling plastics that are not used can be used again for the needs of the more useful.

Senin, 20 Mei 2013

TOEFL grammar structure



TOEFL–grammar structure

Test of English as a Foreign Language disingkat TOEFL adalah ujian kemampuanberbahasa Inggris (logat Amerika) yang diperlukan untuk mendaftar masuk ke kolese (college) atau universitas di Amerika Serikat atau negara-negara lain di dunia. Ujian ini sangat diperlukan bagi pendaftar atau pembicara yang bahasa ibunya bukan bahasa Inggris. Ujian TOEFL ini diselenggarakan oleh kantor ETS (Educational Testing Service) di Amerika Serikat untuk semuapeserta tes di seluruh dunia.
            Jenis tes bahasa Inggris TOEFL ini pada umumnya diperlukan untuk persyaratan masuk kuliah pada hampir semua universitas di Amerika Serikat dan Kanada baik untuk program undergraduate (S-1) maupun graduate (S-2 atau S-3). Hasil tes TOEFL ini juga dipakai sebagai bahan pertimbangan mengenai kemampuan bahasa Inggris dari calon mahasiswa yang mendaftar ke universitas di negara lain, termasuk universitas di Eropa dan Australia. Secara umum, tes TOEFL lebih berorientasi kepada American English, dan sedikit berbeda dengan jenis tes IELTS yang berorientasi kepada British English. Tidak seperti tes IELTS, tes TOEFL ini pada umumnya tidak mempunyai bagian individual interview test.
Biasanya tes ini memakan waktu sekitar tiga jam dan diselenggarakan dalam 4 bagian, yaitu bagian:
• listening comprehension,
• grammar structure and written expression,
• reading comprehension, dan bagian
• writing.
 Ada beberapa hal yang dapat Anda lakukan untuk mempersiapkan Struktur TOEFL.
1. Memahami Struktur Kalimat Dasar.
2. Memahami Konjungsi dan Kata Menghubungkan, Koordinator, dan Subordinators.
3. Memahami Subyek-Verb Agreement dan Voice Pasif.
4. Memahami Mengurangi Klausul Relatif dan Mengurangi Klausul adverbial.
5. Memahami Frase partisip dan Frase Pengantar.
6. Memahami Parellelism dan inversi.
7. Memahami Klausul Noun dan Pertanyaan Embedded.
8. Memahami Laporan sisipan, gerund, dan infinitif.
9. Memahami pasif statif dan preposisi.
Contoh test structure grammer pada TOEFL:
From the marked areas A, B, C and D, identify the one that is wrong, correct it.
1. (A) Their most favorite hotel is the Hotel Regent. (B) It is near the beach and (C) is a very cozy hotel. It is (D) not too expensive, too.
2. I like (A) these kind (B) of hotels too. I don’t (C) go for the big, noisy and (D) expensive sort.
3. The Amelia Hotel (A) is good as the Radan Hotel, (B) in fact. Actually, I (C) would rather go to the Amelia. (D) It’s closer to the town.
4. (A) He prefers the (B) Radan Hotel because (C) he feels the service (D) is more better.
5. The Weather Bureau (A) is announced that the rain (B) will continue for (C) another 36 hours. People (D) are advised to stay indoors.
6. Visibility (A) on the roads (B) are very poor. Thus, drivers are advised (C) to be careful, especially when (D) driving at night.
7. She was (A) kind enough (B) to give me (C) a lot of advices (D) about how to pass the driving test.
8. (A) I told him, “(B) I have not (C) been told (D) these news”
9. (A) The man was hung as punishment (B) for murdering (C) his five children (D) and his wife.
10. (A) I made him (B) to confess that (C) he copied your answer (D) during the test.
Answers 1. A 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. A 6. B 7. C 8. D 9. A 10. B
Error identification – Extra practice exercises. Decide which part of the sentence is grammatically incorrect. Then look at the answers below.
I enjoyed study geography at school and now I’ve enrolled at the Economics Faculty.
I used to be keen of all scientific subjects but now I would prefer to study art.
I want meet your sister when she comes to see you – she sounds very nice.
My friends tell the English exam is quite difficult but I’m not worried.
The tickets, which are extremely good value, can be buy from large supermarkets.
The number of people which asked for the discount was low but grew during the summer period.
He wanted always to be a doctor and after doing medicine he now works in a hospital.
The informations they gave us was not very helpful so I consulted the website instead.
There isn’t many time, do you think we should get a taxi to the exhibition centre?
He graduated in languages in June and is now thinking of do a second degree in psychology.
The policeman showed us an identikit picture of the man who steal the car.
How long does it take to get the station on foot from your house
I was so angry that I took the watch broken to the jewellers to get my money back.
He rang me this morning for tell me that he had passed his driving test.
I won’t be able to go on holiday this year unless I will get a part-time job.
It was so nice day that they decided to have a picnic in the field.
I haven’t never seen anybody who rides a horse so well before.
My boyfriend always takes me to see horror films, but I don’t like very much.
We went to Guatemala last year so we were tired of the usual beach holiday.
I’ve gone to Marbella. I remember it well. A busy town with a nice modern promenade and picturesque ‘piazze’.
ANSWERS WITH EXPLANATIONS
I enjoyed studying (‘enjoy’ + ing)
keen on (keen + on = essere appassionato di)
want to (‘want’+ to + verb)
tell me (‘tell’ + person (me/you/him/her etc); nb. ‘say’non è seguito dalla persona)
can be bought (to be + past participle = passive)
who (relative pronoun ‘who’ = people)
always wanted (frequency adverb goes before the main verb)
the informations (information = uncountable noun)
much time (‘much’ with uncountable nouns, ‘many’ with countable nouns)
doing (‘ing’after a preposition)
stole (past tense of steal = steal stole stolen)
get to (preposition necessary; get to /go to /come to the station, BUT. arrive at/ reach the station)
broken watch (adjective before noun)
to tell me (to+base form = per/a scopo di)
unless I will get (1° conditional = if/unless/when + present)
such a (such a + noun; so + adjective)
I haven’t never (double negative)
l don’t like them (‘like’ + direct object)
as (as = siccome; so = quindi)
I’ve been to Madrid (use ‘been’ not ‘gone’ se sei stato e tornato)
TOEFL AND GRAMMAR STRUCTURE

TOEFL test materials consisted of four sessions, which typically must be completed in a total time of 3 hours. Each session has its own time limit, so it takes the ability to solve the "true and fast". Each session include:
1.       listening Comprehension
This section consists of 50 questions, you are required to answer the question that is played (this matter is not recorded in the books about). In this case the matter related to the three types of conversations: Conversations short, long conversations, and a long story.
·         Part A : Short Dialogue
In this section, there will be a short conversation between two people. After the conversation, the question relating to the conversation will be provided. Both the conversation and the question will not be repeated. Short Dialogue consists of several skill / ability, namely:
Skill 1: RESTATEMENT (Pernyataan Kembali)
 Skill 2: NEGATIVES (Pernyataan Negatif)
 Skill 3: SUGGESTIONS (Saran)
 Skill 4: PASSIVE
 Skill 5: WHO and WHERE (Apa dan Dimana)
 Skill 6: AGREEMENT (Persetujuan)
·         Part B : Long Conversation
In this section, there will be the topic of casual conversation between a student with a duration of about 60-90 seconds. After a long conversation finishes will be followed by a number of multiple choice questions which all refer to the length of the conversation.
·         Part C : Talks
In this section, there will be some talks with a duration of about 60-90 seconds of the life of the school or college, each followed by multiple choice questions.

2.       Grammar Structure and Written Expression
Type of question is a structure with multiple-choice questions which required knowledge of grammar or correct grammar.
3.       Reading Comprehension
You will face questions about the form of the story, where there will be questions related to the story. The story can be used for one or more questions. Berbada with Listening Comprehension, Reading Comprehension questions at the session for questions and a book should be read carefully.
4.       Writing
You will be given a theme, and the theme is developed into writing in the English language. There are usually a limited number of characters minimum that should be on your writing.


TOEFL GRAMMAR STUCTURE
A.    Basic Sentences Stucture
In general, there was no significant difference between the structure of English sentences with Indonesian, where a sentence is built upon four main components, namely.
Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Complement (C) + Modifier (M)
Example :
We studied grammar last week
We + studied + grammar + last week
S + V + C + M
1.      SUBJECT
·         is the agent of sentence in the active voice
·         is thing/person that performs or responsible for the action of a sentence 
·         normally precedes the verb
example :
·         I explain how to study English
·         She listens to my explanation
·         They didn’t understand that language
The subject can be seen from the question who or what is doing the action of a sentence.
2.      VERB
Verb is the action of a sentence. Verb phrase: auxilaries combination with the main verb.
Example :
·         I am learning English (am = auxilary, learning = main verb)
·         My brother is very clever
·         She has gone home (has = auxilary, gone = main verb)
·         I have been waiting here (have been = auxilary, waiting = main verb)
3.      COMPLEMENT
·         Usually a noun or noun phrase
·         usually found after the verb in the active sentence
·         complement to answer the question what or whom

example :
·         Sarijon bought a cake yesterday
o    What did Sarijon buy yesterday?  –> a cake.
·         He saw Tony at the movie
o    Whom did he see at the movie? –> Tony
·         I explain pharmacology to my students
o    What do I explain to my students? –> pharmacology
4.      MODIFIER

·         Modifier describes the time, place, or manner of an action or actions
·         The most common form of the modifier is a propositional phrase (group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun.
 Preposition = on, out, under, behind, etc ...
·          Modifier answer the questions when, where, or how

Example :
·         John bought a book at a book fair
o    Where did John buy a book? –> at a book fair
·         She is driving very fast
o    How is she driving? –> very fast
·         I posted my application yesterday
o    When do I post my application? –> yesterday
example problems :
1.      The Eiffel Tower is a landmark in Paris, France
2.      Young deer is fawns
3.      A dream about falling is scary
4.      Those flowers are beautiful
5.      I launched  this blog on july 14th 2009


B.     Parallel Structure
Parallelism means that the words used in a series or group that should have the same form as grammar. When we use words or phrases that are connected by a chain, then it must be the same shape as grammar. Consider the following example:
·         Terry likes swimming and to dive. (False - not parallel)
·          Terry likes swimming and diving. (True - parallel)
·          Terry likes to swim and (to) dive. (True - parallel)
·          I'm taking history, math, and chemical. (False - Chemical not a noun)
·          I'm taking history, math, and chemistry
Example problem :
Identify and correct the mistakes in parallel structure in the following sentences
1.      I swept the yard, weeded the garden and washed the clothes.
2.      James decided to get up early, practice some yoga and eat  healthy foods.
3.      Although I trained hard, practiced every day and listened  to my trainer, I never won a tournament.
4.      I wish he would listen to me, take my advice and stop smoking.
5.      He is an articulate, intelligent and thoughtful  speaker.


C.    Comparative Adjectives
When talking about the two objects, we can compare and see the differences as well similarities between the two objects. Maybe it has the same thing on one side and the difference on the other side. To compare the difference between the two objects we use comparative adjectives. Comparison is only using comparative adjectives to compare between two objects only.
There are two ways to create a comparative adjectives:
1. Adding the suffix-er (short adjectives)
2. Adding more prefix (long adjectives)
Addition of a suffix rule for short adjectives:
·          Generally only added adjective-er, for example: older, smaller, richer, etc.
·         If the ending-e, just add r, for example: later, nicer, etc.
·         If the ending in a consonant-vowel-consonant, the final consonant plus, then plus-er, for example: bigger, hotter, etc.
·         If the ending-y, then y changed to i then added er, for example: happier, Earlier, busier, heavier, etc.
For long adjectives, the rule only adds more words only on adjectives, for example: expensive to be more expensive, more beautiful to be beautiful, and so on. Some adjectives have irregular shapes, such as good - better, well (healthy) - better, bad - worse, far - farther / further, etc.
Adjectives with two syllables can use-er or more: quiet - quieter / more quiet, clever - cleverer / more clever, narrow - narrower / more narrow, simple - Simpler / more simple. Comparative adjectives are not only used to compare two different objects, but can also be used to compare the same object that points to itself, and the object is not to say, as one example sentence above: I want to have a more powerful computer.
Adjectives with two syllables
If the adjective has two or more syllables, we add more before the adjective. example:
·         This book is more expensive than that book.
·         This picture is more beautiful.
However, there are many exceptions to the rule of one / two syllables it.
Some words with 2 syllables have properties similar to words that have 1 syllable. example:
·         This is Easier – True
·         This is more easy - not really
·          This is Simpler – True
·         This is more simple - not true

And some adjectives can use both comparative form. example:
·         Clever - cleverer - more clever: These are all correct
·         Quiet - quieter - more quiet: These are all correct.
No exceptions can be learned through the rules, the best way to learn is to learn it one by one.
Example problems :
  1. The Nile river is longer than the Amazon.
  2. I’m taller than Yuri but shorter than Miko.
  3. They’re more handsome than us, but we’re smarter than them.
  4. This book bag is more expensive than that bag.
  5. This newspaper is better than that newspaper.


D.    Conditional Clauses
Conditional (sentence presupposition) explains that an activity contrary to other activities. The most common conditional is Real and Unreal Conditonal Conditonal, sometimes called if-clauses. Real Conditional (often also referred to as Conditional Type I) which describes mengandai-if in accordance with the facts.

Unreal Conditional (often also referred to as Conditional Type II) which describes the supposition that no real or imagined. There is also a 3rd Conditional often called the Conditional Type III, is used as a regret that happened in the past and zero conditionals, used to express something that is definitely true.

Note: If the clause "if" is placed at the beginning of a sentence, we must use the "coma". Conversely, if the clause "if" is behind, then there should be no comma
Conditional or modality has 3 forms:
1.         Future Conditional (Conditional Type 1) This assumption states that something might happen in the future or now, if the terms / certain conditions are met.
Type 1 Conditional formula:
+ Subject + If + subject + present simple modals (will, can, may, must) V1 (simple form)
example: If have money I will buy a new car
Simple If + Subject + ... + subject + present simple-present
example: If he has enough time, John usually walks to school.
If + Subject + ... + command simple present form
example: If you go to the post office, please mail this letter for me!
2.         Unreal Present (Conditional Type 2) This assumption states something contrary to what exists or happens now.
+ If + subject + subject + simple past modals (would, could, might) V1 (Simple Form)
example: If I had time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend
(I do not have time so I could not go)
He would tell you about it if he were here
(He would say if he were here, that because she's not here, he did not say Because he is not here he does not tell you about it.)
* For the if-clause in this form only to be "were" is used for all subjects.
if the conditional type 2 can be removed is by using pattern inversion:
Were + subject + Adj / Noun + capital + subject (would, could, might) + V1
example: Were I John I would not forgive you.
(if only I was the john I will not forgive you, in fact I not john so I forgive you / I'm not John so I forgive you).
He could hug me, if he were here. (She may hug me, if he's here). The fact is: he can not hug me, Because, he is not here.
3. Unreal Past (Conditional Type 3)
This assumption states something contrary to what has happened (past).
Type 3 Conditional formula:
+ If + Subject + Past Perfect ... subject modals (would, could, might) have + V3
            Example :
1.  If we had known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
(if only we knew you were there, we had sent a letter to you;
which means that we do not send the letter because we do not know you're there / I did not know that you were there so I did not write you a letter.
2.  He would tell you about it if he were here.
3.  If he did not speak so quickly intervening, you could understand him.
           Form inversion (without the "IF") for this pattern:
Had + subject + V3 ... subject + modals (would, could, might) + have V3

           inverse sentence above when written into:
          Had we known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
          without changing the meaning or significance.
Example Problems :
1. If it was not so cloudy, we would plan on having the fair outside
2. If she would have remembered  to advance her clock one hour, she wouldn’t    have been late for work
3.  If I were rich, I would go to Canada to learn English.
4. You should pass this easy exam easily if you have studied hard

E. Noun Clauses
Noun clause is a clause (ie subject and verb) is used as a noun. Noun clause in the sentence is generally used as a subject and an object sentences.
Noun clause can be preceded by:
·         Question word or relative pronoun question either single word or phrase:
 Single question word (ie when, how, what, ect.).
o Question word + determiner / noun / adjective / adverb.
o Question word + infinitive.
·          CONJUNCTION (i.e. Whether and if).
·          That or the fact that.
So the pattern of the noun clause is:

Question word/conjunction/that + subject + verb +  ..…

A.  Noun clauses beginning with Question words
In How to Address Questions already discussed about the use of question words either in making information questions and in making embedded questions. Embedded questions are noun clause. In this section are given additional examples to refresh your memory.

Refresh your memory.
1.      Single question words.
example:
1.      Where she is now is still unknown.
2.      When they arrive is still uncertain.
3.      I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer are two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt. Note: in this sentence, noun clause what you did last summer became the object of I know and I still know, and once combined with: are two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt, a compound subject of the sentence.
Noun clause can be placed at the beginning of the sentence (as subject) or as an object. If you want to change the position of the subject noun clause object sentence into a sentence, it is usually necessary pronoun or a slight modification of the word. The above example becomes:
1.      It is still unknown where she is now.
2.      Do you know when they arrive?
3.      Two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt are I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer. Because the title of movies, noun clause what you did last summer does not need to be rotated position.
NOTE :
a.       Clause question preceded by certain words (ie when, Whenever, where) can also function as an adverbial clause.
example:
1.      I was reading a book when the phone rang.
2.      I went to where I and my ex-girlfriend had been last weekend.
3.      Suddenly I get nausea Whenever I see his face. (nausea = nausea / vomiting willing).
b.      Clause is preceded by the words specific question (ie who, Whom, Whose + noun) can also function as an adjective clause. In this case, the question is actually a relative pronoun. Well, do not be too confused by the term. Important that you understand the pattern / structure of the sentence. But, if you are curious, please read the adjective clauses topic.
example:
1.      I think you Whom Mr. Dodi was looking for. (I guess you (people) who pack Dodi were looking for earlier).
2.      Mr. Dodi, who is a teacher, was looking for you at school.
3.      Rommy, Whose book was stolen last week, just bought another new book yesterday.
So, how to tell if the noun clause, adverbial clause, or adjective clause? The answer is simple. Noun clause can be replaced by the pronoun it, while the adverbial clause and adjective clause no. Noun clause answers the question what and who / Whom; adverbial clause answering questions when, where, how (including how much, how often, ect), and why. Adjective clause (ie in the form of an adjective clause) describes noun, and relative pronounnya (ie who, that, ect.) In Indonesian means "the".
 
2. Question words + ever / soever
Except how, at the end of question words can be added ever or soever Whenever = whensoever, whatever = whatsoever, and so on. Meaning here ever or soever the same, ie only / no, stay combined with a question word in front of him. Meanwhile, how + ever be however (ie adverb or also called a transition word meaning yet / even if it is) is not included in this category.
Example :
1.      We will accept whatever you want us to do. (We will accept / do whatever you want us to do).
2.      Whoever can melt her feeling is a very lucky guy. (melt = melt). Be careful: guy (pronounced gae) = men, while gay (read gei) = fag = fag.
3.      She has agreed to wherever the man would bring her. (He has agreed to take him wherever he goes). Note: in speaking (informal), preposition (in this case to, etc.) Is usually placed at the end of the sentence. She has agreed wherever the man would bring her to.





3. Question nouns + words
      Question words + nouns are often used, among others: what time (time), what day   (what day), what time (time), what kind (what kind), what type (what type), Whose + nouns (ie Whose car, Whose book, ect.), and so on.
Example:
1.      I can not remember what day we will take the exam.
2.      As long as I am faithful, she does not care what type of family I come from. (faithful = loyal).
3.      Do you know what time it is?
4.      I do not know Whose car is parked in front of my house.

4. Question adjectives + words
+ Question words are frequently used adjectives such as: how long (how long / long),   how far (how     much), how old (how old / Age), ect.
Example :
1.      Man! She still looks young. Do you know how old she actually is?
2.      I am lost. Could you tell me how far it is from here to the post office?
3.      What a jerk. He did not even ask how long I had been waiting for him.


5. Question words + determiners.
Determiners + Question words often used is: how many (how many) and how much (how many). Remember: how many followed by plural nouns, whereas how much followed by uncountable nouns.
Example :
1.       Is there any correlation between how good he or she is in English and how many books he or she has?
2.       How much will improve your English skills is determined by how hard you practice.

6. Question words + adverbs
+ Question words are frequently used adverbs are: how Often (how often), how many times (how many times) ect.
Example :
1.      Often no matter how I practice, my English still sucks. (No matter how many times I practice, my english is bad). Suck (informal verb) = bad / not good; suck another meaning: suck.
2.       I do not want my parents to know how many times I have left school early. (leave school early = absent).

7. Question words + infinitives
If the question words immediately followed by infinitives, the invinitives implies shouldatau can / could. Note that the subject after question words omitted.
Example :
1.       She did not know what to do = She did not know what she should do. (He does not know what he should do).
2.      Please tell me how to get the train station from here = Please tell me how I can get the train station from here.
3.      We have not Decided when to go to the beach = We have not Decided when we should go to the beach.
4.      Mary told us where to find her = Marry told us where we could find her.

B. Noun clauses beginning with Whether / if
Whether can be followed by OR / NOT can not; meaning of the sentence is usually the same although the OR / NOT is not mentioned (it depends on the context of the sentence).
Example:
1.      Whether I am not sure she is coming or not = I am not sure Whether or not she is coming = I am not sure Whether she is coming. (I'm not sure whether he will come or not).
2.      We can not decide Whether we should go out or stay home. = We can not decide Whether to go or (to) stay home. Note, infinitives can also be used after Whether.
3.      Whether I am not sure I should take economics or law after I graduate from high school. (I'm not sure if I should take some Economic Law after graduating from high school or later).
4.      If you take economics, I will take economics. On the other hand, if you take law, I will take law too


C. Noun clauses beginning with that / the fact that
Here, that means that, while the fact that means the fact that. Whereas, that in    adjective clauses mean that.
example:
1.       That she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20 surprises a lot of people = It surprises a lot of people that she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20.
2.      It is the fact that the world is round = the fact that the world is round is well known.
3.      It was obvious that she was very sick = The fact that she was very sick was obvious.
4.      It seems that it is going to rain soon.

Example Problem:
1.      The teacher heard who answered the question.
analysis:
·          The first sentence "The teacher heard" is true because the subject teacher and heard verbnya. The second sentence "Who answered the phoned" is also true because who serves as a subject and answered as verbnya. Who at the same time also serves as connetor.
·          So the above sentence is correct.
2.      I do not understand it went wrong.
Analysis:
·         The first sentence "I do not understand" is correct because I do not understand the subject and verb. The second sentence "it went wrong" is wrong because there is no connector at once subject.
·         correct sentence should be: I do not understand what went wrong.What subject and also serves as a connector, while his went as a verb.
3.      Of the three movies, I can not decide is the best roomates.
Analysis:
·          In the first sentence, I can not decide as Subject and as a verb. In the second sentence, roomates as well as the subject and the connector is a verb.
4.      She did not remember who in her class.
Analysis:
·          In the first sentence, as She did not remember the subject and the verb. Dikalimat second, who as a connector and also subject but no verb.
·          correct sentence should ................. who was in her class.
5.      No one is sure what did it happen in front of the building.
Analysis:
·         The first sentence is correct because No one is subject and is is a verb, but the second sentence is wrong because there was and it did. Did and it seharusnay in delete and verb "happen" became form of yesteryear "happened".
·          So the correct sentence should be: ....... what happened in front of the building.
Grammar Structure of TOEFL

Pada halaman blog ini saya akan membahas tentang Struktur Grammar dari TOEFL.
Sebenarnya banyak sekali struktur dari Grammar yang perlu kita pelajari, namun saya akan membahas hanya 5 struktur.
Mari perhatikan struktur – struktur berikut ini :
1.     Passive Voice

Kalimat pasif jelas berbeda dengan kalimat aktif. Kegunaannya pun berbeda dalam bahasa Inggris. Dalam kalimat aktif, subjek lah yang melakukan pekerjaan, sedangkan dalam kalimat pasif, objek lah yang melakukan pekerjaan.
Perubahan kalimat dari aktif menjadi kalimat pasif dapat dilihat sebagai berikut :
            Aktif   : Hendry often helps my mother.
            Pasif    : My mother is often helped by Hendry.
            Aktif   : I sent this letter three days ago.
            Pasif    : This letter was sent by me three days ago.
Kalimat pasif digunakan jika kita ingin memfokuskan kejadiannya, bukan siapa ataupun apa yang melakukannya.
Contoh            :
            The city was destroyed during the World War II.
            (Kota itu hancur selama Perang Dunia II.)
Kalimat pasif juga digunakan jika kita ingin menghindari suatu objek yang semu seperti somebody/someone.
Contoh :
            The letter has to be sent today.
            (Suratnya harus dikirim hari ini.)
Dalam passive voice kita juga dapat menggunakan “by” jika kita ingin mengatakan siapa atau apa yang melakukan suatu kejadian.
Contoh :
            The fence was broken last week. à tidak diketahui siapa/apa pelakunya.
            The fence was broken by the storm last week. à menjadi diketahui.

2.     Adjective

Adjective merupakan kata sifat yang digunakan untuk menerangkan kata benda. Adjective dapat digunakan di depan benda countable ataupun uncountable.
Contoh :
            expensive bag  à tas mahal
            new Friend      à teman baru
Berikut adalah jenis-jenis adjective :
-          Qualitative adj      : menerangkan bentuk/kejadian suatu benda.
                                (big, small, tall, etc.)
-          Distributive adj     : bersifat distributive
                                (every, either, each, etc.)
-          Possessive adj       : menunjukan kepunyaan.
                                (his, her, my, etc.)
-          Demonstrative adj : untuk menunjuk suatu benda.
                                (that, this, those, etc.)
-          Interrogative adj   : untuk menanyakan suatu benda.
                                (which, what, whose)
-          Quantitative adj    : menerangkan jumlah benda.
                                (many, some, much, etc.)
-          Colour adj             : menerangkan warna benda.
                                (red, green, yellow, etc.)


Ada juga jenis adjective yang berikutnya, yaitu compound adjective.

Compound Adjective yaitu kata bilangan yang dapat digabungkan dengan kata benda dalam bentuk singular.
Contoh :

a.       Age (usia)
A fifty years old woman.    à salah
A fifty year old woman.     à benar
b.      Volume (isi)
He has just bought a ten litres car.  à salah
He has just bought a ten litre car.    à benar
c.       Length (panjang)
Fifteen metre house. (not metres)
d.      Price (harga)
Sixty dollar camera. (not dollars)
e.       Weight (bobot)
Ten kilo package. (not kilos)
f.       Are (bidang)
Twenty acre farm. (not acres)
g.      Time (waktu)
Two hour meeting. (not hours)

3.     Comparison Degree
Adalah tingkat-tingkat perbandingan yang terdiri dari jenis-jenis berikut :
1.      Positive degree
Menunjukan kesamaan mutu, banyaknya, tingkatan, derajat, antara suatu benda dengan benda lainnya.
Contoh :
                  The girl is as old as my mother.
                  I am as tall as my sister.

2.      Comparative degree
Digunakan jika kita ingin menunjukan secara jelas bahwa terdapat ketidaksamaan perbandingan antara benda yang satu dengan benda lainnya.
Contoh :
                  I’m shorter than my brother.
                  My bag is more expensive than her.
Aturan dalam comparative degree  ini adalah jika kata sifat kurang atau sama 2 suku kata, maka untuk perbandingannya kita menambahkan “er” pada kata sifat tersebut. Tetapi jika kata sifat yang kita gunakan untuk membandingkan adalah lebih dari 2 suku kata, maka kita tambahkan “more” di depan kata sifat tersebut.

3.      Superlative degree
Digunakan untuk membandingkan seseorang atau beda yang melebihi orang-orang atau benda-benda lainnya. (paling)
Contoh :
                  Dave is the tallest in the class.
                  Ellie is the most diligent student.
Aturan dalam superlative degree ini mirip seperti comparative degree. Jika kata yang kita gunakan untuk membandingkan kurang atau sama dengan 2 suku kata, maka kita tambahkan “est” pada kata tersebut. Sedangkan jika lebih dari 2 suku kata maka kita tambahkan “most” di depan kata tersebut.

4.     Adjective Clause
Merupakan anak kalimat yang berfungsi sebagai modifier atau menggantikan kedudukan dari adjective dalam kalimat majemuk.
Contoh :
1.      The boy who studies in Gunadarma University is Doni.
2.      The man whom you met yesterday is my father.
3.      The girl whose dress is white is my sister.

Who, whom, whose, kemudian ada juga which, dan that merupakan relative clauses yang fungsinya adalah melengkapi adjective clause.
Masing-masing relative clauses digunakan sebagai berikut :
Who           : digunakan berhubungan dengan subjek (orang)
Whom        : digunakan berhubungan dengan objek (orang)
Which        : digunakan berhubungan dengan subjek atau objek (benda)
That           : digunakan berhubungan dengan subjek atau objek (benda/orang)
Whose        : digunakan berhubungan dengan kata ganti milik.

5.     The Zero Article
Merupakan kata sandang yang kadang-kadang tidak digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris.
Kata sandang tidak digunakan di depan kata benda plural jika yang dimaksud adalah sesuatu yang bersifat umum.
Contoh :
a.      People       : Doctors are paid better than teacher.
b.      Animals     : Cats don’t like cold weather.
c.       Food          : Carrots are good for eyes.
d.      Places        : Museums are closed on Monday.
Kata sandang tidak digunakan di depan kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung.
Contoh :
a.      Food          : Butter is made from milk.
b.      Colours     : White is my favorite colour.
c.       Languages : English is spoken all over the world.
THE” tidak digunakan di depan nama benua, negara, kota, degara bagian dan provinsi.
Contoh :
a.      Sweden is in Europe.
b.      Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia.










THE” juga tidak digunakan di depan mata pelajaran.
a.      My brother is taking economics.
b.      Mathematics is a difficult subject for me.
THE” tidak digunakan di depan nama bahasa.
a.      I study English on Monday.
THE” tidak digunakan di depan nama permainan.
a.      Jack plays basketball.
b.      Poker is a card game.
THE” tidak digunakan di depan nama makanan.
a.      Your breakfast is already serve.
b.      Let’s have lunch together.


SUMBER :